Ao contrário do que se imagina, o papel das bactérias e fungos em nosso organismo pode ser muito positivo para a saúde. Cada vez mais, discutimos sobre os efeitos dos microrganismos que habitam nosso organismo, mas sabemos ainda muito pouco sobre esse complexo universo de coexistência.

Imagem de Gerd Altmann por Pixabay

Sabemos, hoje, que bactérias que habitam o corpo humano, interagem com o ambiente e com nosso organismo através da liberação de pequenas moléculas difusíveis. A microbiota intestinal humana, por exemplo, produz uma série de metabólitos que atuam localmente, ou atingem a circulação sistêmica, gerando uma série de efeitos fisiológicos.

Bactérias que protegem contra infecções virais

Em 2018, pesquisadores mostraram que uma bactéria presente no intestino humano (Clostridium orbiscindens) pode produzir um composto chamado desaminotirosina (DAT). O DAT, aparentemente, protege nosso organismo de infecções pelo vírus da influenza.

Os estudos mostraram que uma menor carga viral é observada no pulmão de camundongos expostos ao DAT, diminuindo os danos pulmonares causados pela infecção viral (1). 

Imagem de Jerzy Górecki por Pixabay 

A bactéria C. orbiscindens é capaz de degradar flavonóides provenientes da alimentação gerando o DAT, que por sua vez, exerce ações pulmonares protetivas em casos de infecção pelo vírus da influenza.

É conveniente lembrar que o C. orbiscindens é altamente sensível a vancomicina e metronidazol, e o uso destes antibióticos está associado a uma maior taxa de mortalidade em casos de infecções pelo vírus da influenza.  

Esse artigo foi publicado, em 2018, na revista Science (1), e sugere que alguns microrganismos da microbiota intestinal podem exercer papel de proteção frente a infecções virais. Dessa forma, o conhecimento prévio da microbiota intestinal pode fornecer dados importantes sobre a perspectiva de recuperação dos indivíduos frente a tais infecções virais.

Além disso os resultados sugerem que uma dieta composta por alimentos ricos em flavonóides tende a gerar mais DAT no intestino do indivíduo, oferecendo proteção imunológica contra as infecções virais.

Bactérias podem interferir no seu comportamento ?

Em 2014, pesquisadores demonstraram que bactérias patogênicas (2) e bactérias comensais presentes na microbiota intestinal (3) são capazes de produzir neurotransmissores com capacidade de sinalização neuroendócrina e comportamental (2, 3), ou seja, metabólitos bacterianos atuando diretamente nas nossas células nervosas.

É incrível pensar que as bactérias que habitam nosso corpo podem também afetar diretamente nosso comportamento!!!!

Gostou da leitura? Acesse mais conteúdos no Blog da Scienco http://www.scienco.bio.br/ e leia sobre assuntos interessantes do universo científico!

Referências

1 Al. L. Steed, G.P. Christophi, G.E. Kaiko, L. Sun, V. M. Goodwin, U. Jain, E. Esaulova, M. N. Artyomov, D. J. Morales, M. J. Holtzman, A. C. M. Boon, D. J. Lenschow, T. S. Stappenbeck.  The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through type I interferon Science , Vol. 357, Issue 6350, pp. 498-502

2.  J. D. Meisel, O. Panda, P. Mahanti, F. C. Schroeder, D. H. Kim, Chemosensation of bacterial secondary metabolites modulates neuroendocrine signaling and behavior of C. elegansCell 159, 267–280 (2014).

3.  B. B. Williams, A. H. Van Benschoten, P. Cimermancic, M. S. Donia, M. Zimmermann, M. Taketani, A. Ishihara, P. C. Kashyap, J. S. Fraser, M. A. Fischbach, Discovery and characterization of gut microbiota decarboxylases that can produce the neurotransmitter tryptamine. Cell Host Microbe 16, 495–503 (2014). 

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